Geography and Climate
Uganda lies on the elevated basin which rises between the eastern and western branches of the Great Rift Valley. Most of the country is over 1,000 meters in altitude and topography is generally flat as you move west to east.
The most mountainous part of Uganda is the Kigezi region in the southwest. North of Kigezi, on the Congolese border, the 70×30 kilometres Rwenzori Mountains form the highest mountain range in Africa with Margherita Peak (5, 109 meters), on Mount Stanley the highest point in the Rwenzori, only exceeded in altitude by the free-standing Mount Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro.
Other large mountains in Uganda include the volcanic Virunga range on the border with Rwanda and DRC, and Mount Elgon, a vast extinct volcano straddling the Kenya border. There are several smaller volcanic mountains in the north and east.
With the exception of the semi-desert in the extreme northeast, most of Uganda is well watered and fertile. Almost 25% of the country’s surface area is covered by water. Lake Victoria, the second largest lake in the world, is shared by Uganda with Tanzania and Kenya. Lakes Albert, Edward and George lie on or close to the DRC border, while the marshy and ill-defined lake Kyoga lie in the center of Uganda.
At Jinja, on Lake Victoria shore, Owen Falls (now submerged by the Owen Falls Dam) is regarded as the official source of the Nile, the world’s longest river. The Nile also passes through lakes Kyoga and Albert.
Uganda’s Equatorial climate is tempered by its elevated altitude. In most parts of the country, the daily maximum is between 20oC – 31oC (68oF-88oF) and the minimum is between 15oC-18oC (59oF-64oF). The highest temperatures in Uganda have been recorded on the plains immediately east of Lake Albert, while the lowest recorded on the glacial peaks of Rwenzori.
Except in the dry north, where in some areas the average annual rainfall is as low as 100 millimetres, most parts of Uganda receive an annual rainfall of between 1,000 – 2,000 millimetres. There is wide regional variation in rainfall patterns. It can rain almost any time of the year in the western Uganda and lake Lake Victoria region.
As a rough guide however, the wet seasons are from mid-September to November and from March to May. The rest of the year, little or no rainfall can be realized.