Uganda’s remarkable avian diversity — 1,066 species recorded in an area similar to that of Great Britain — can be attributed to its location at a transitional point between the east African savanna, the West African rainforest, and the semi-desert of the north.
Indicative of Uganda’s transitional location is the fact that only two birds are endemic to the country, the somewhat nondescript Fox’s weaver and the Ruwenzori Bouble-collared Sunbird.
However, if you take only east Africa into consideration, then roughly 150 birds of Uganda species (more than 10% of the regional checklist) are found only in Uganda. This list includes:
Most of these ‘Uganda specials’ are west African and Congolese forest birds that would be very difficult to see elsewhere, for the simple reason that the other countries in which they occur are poorly developed for tourism.
Birding in Uganda’s Rainforests
The rainforests of western Uganda must be seen as the country’s most important bird habitats and of most significant interest to birdwatchers, mainly if they are already reasonably familiar with typical east African birds. The most alluring forest in terms of localized species is probably Semliki, closely rivaled by Budongo, Kibale, and Bwindi Impenetrable Forest.
However, in practical terms, Kibale Forest is probably Uganda’s best single stop for forest birds because of the guides who take tourists into the forest and the nearby Magombe Swamp—located in Bigodi wetland just opposite Kibale National Park in Fort portal district.
That said, just about any forest in Uganda will be rewarding; even the relatively tame botanical garden in Entebbe will throw up several interesting species.
Unfortunately, most forest birds are very secretive. It can be challenging to get even a glimpse of them in the dense undergrowth, let alone a clear enough look to make an identification. You would probably identify more bird species in ten minutes walk in the suburbs of Entebbe than you would in an afternoon walking through the Semliki Forest.
For this reason, first-time Africa birding safari visitors might do better concentrating on locations other than forests. If you want to see a wide range of birds in Uganda, try these places:
- Entebbe – water and forest birds,
- Lake Mburo –water- and acacia-associated birds,
- Queen Elizabeth – a wide variety of habitats; over 600 species recorded,
- Murchison Falls – a wide variety of habitats; the best place in East Africa to see the papyrus-associated shoebill and,
- Kidepo – northern semi-desert specials; over 50 raptors recorded.
The Birding Experience in Uganda
Uganda’s appeal as a birding destination has been enhanced in recent years by improving avian knowledge and general guiding practices on the part of guides. The best of them can identify most species by call and even calling up the more responsive species. In the parks and reserves, you’ll meet some ranger guides whose knowledge compares favorably with their counterparts in any part of Africa.
However, birding capabilities vary from one guide to the next, so specify your interest when you ask for a guide. To secure the services of a guide for a nationwide tour of birding hotspots, contact our numbers, and we’ll find you an available, knowledgeable guide to take you around Uganda.
Uganda Birding Guides
Birders in Uganda are also better informed than ever before with the publication of Stevenson and Fanshawe’s Field Guide to the Birds of East Africa in 2002, with the latest second edition released in 2020. This superb book means that for the first time, birders species were recorded in the country.
Harder to obtain but worth searching for is the access to accurate depictions, descriptions, and distribution details for every specific Where to Watch Birds in Uganda by Rossouw and Sacchi contain excellent site descriptions. Few visitors to Uganda will depart totally unmoved by its avian wealth, but they will tend to arrive in the country with a wide variety of expectations.
The Birds of Uganda That Will Blow You Away
I guanrantee you that even bird watchers pursuing the hobby at a perversive level will be amazed at a majestic fish eagle calling high from a riverine perch. Or a flock of Abyssinian ground hornbills marching with comic intent through the savanna.
First-time African visitors with a stated interest in birding in Uganda are more likely to be blown away by their first sighting of a lilac-breasted roller or Goliath heron than by most of the country’s long list of western forest specials.
Birdwatchers based in Africa’s savanna belt will generally want to focus more on forest birds, but mostly on such common and iconic species as great blue turaco or black-and-white casqued hornbill rather than on glimpsing a selection of more localized but duller forest greenbuls.
The more experienced the individual bird watcher in African conditions, the greater their priority on pursuing Albertine Rift endemics and Semliki’s’ specials.’
And at the end of the scale, there are those whose life’s mission is to tick every bird species in the world. In this case, dedicating several days to seeking out the endemic Fox’s weaver might rank above all other considerations in planning a Ugandan safari itinerary.
At almost every level, the sheer variety of bird species in Uganda can be daunting for first-timers to Africa and bird enthusiasts familiar with other parts of the continent.
Experienced South African birdwatchers, for instance, are likely to struggle with identifying the plethora of tiny warblers, forest greenbuls, Ploceus weavers, sunbirds, and raptors that occur in Uganda.
One might argue that entering into a severe battle with these complex groups is best left for a repeat visit.